The Cambodia-Australia Agricultural Value Chain (CAVAC) Program promotes gender equality and women’s economic empowerment (WEE) in the Cambodian agricultural systems in which it operates. The pursuit of gender equality and WEE in these systems requires an understanding of its dimensions itself a complex task. Women are thought to be at a disadvantage in farming and agribusiness in Cambodia due to high, unpaid household workloads that restrict both time and mobility. Women also have less access to land, technology, finance, markets, skills and education. In addition to these constraints, women are also subjected to discriminatory attitudes and social backlash when women pursue ‘untraditional roles.